House of Farnese
- Pope Paul III (1468-1549), born Alessandro Farnese. Pope from 1534.
Pope Paul III (1468-1549)
- Pier Luigi Farnese (1503 –1547) the first Duke of Parma, Piacenza and Castro from 1545, the illegitimate son of Cardinal Alessandro Farnese (who later became Pope Paul III).
- Ottavio Farnese (1524 – 1586) Duke of Parma and Piacenza from 1547 and Duke of Castro from 1545.Knight of the Golden Fleece.
- Alexander Farnese (1545 – 1592) Duke of Parma and Piacenza, and Governor of the Spanish Netherlands from 1578 to 1592.Knight of the Golden Fleece.
- Ranuccio I Farnese (1569 – 1622) Duke of Parma, Piacenza and Castro
- Odoardo Farnese (1612 – 1646) Duke of Parma and Piacenza
- Ranuccio II Farnese (1630 – 1694) Duke of Parma and Piacenza
- Francesco Farnese (1678 – 1727) Duke of Parma and Piacenza. Grand Master of the Constantinian Order of Saint George from 1698.
- Antonio Farnese (1679 – 1731) Duke of Parma and Piacenza
Pier Luigi Farnese (1503-1547)
Ottavio Farnese ( 1524-1586)
Alexander Farnese (1545-1592)
Ranuccio I Farnese (1569-1622)
Francesco Maria Farnese (1678-1727)
House of Bourbon
1731–1735, 1748–1803, 1847-1860
- Charles III (1716- 1788) King of Spain 1759–88 (as Carlos III), King of Naples and 1735–59 (as Carlo VII and Carlo V), and Duke of Parma 1732–35 (as Carlo I). Son of Philip V of Spain and Elizabeth Farnese.
- Infante Philip of Spain (1720-1765) Duke of Parma, Plasencia and Guastalla from 1748. Son of Philip V of Spain and Elizabeth Farnese.
- Ferdinand (1751 – 1802) Duke of Parma, Plasencia and Guastalla until 1801.
Duke of Parma 1732–35
Duke of Parma 1748-1803
- Louis (1773-1803) Duke of Parma, King of Etruria from 1802.
- Charles (II) Louis of Bourbon-Parma (1799- 1883) King of Etruria (1803–1807) Duke of Lucca (1824–1847) and Duke of Parma (1847–1848).
- Charles III (1823 – 1854) Duke of Parma
- Robert I (1848 – 1907) Duke of Parma and Piacenza until 1859 was the last sovereign duke.
King of Etruria 1802–1807
Duke of Lucca 1824–1847
Duke of Parma 1847-1860
House of Habsburg
- Charles VI, (1685- 1740) King of Hungary from 1711 to 1740, Archduke of Austria. From 1703 to 1711 claimant to the throne of Spain as Charles III. King of Sicily (1720–34), King of Naples (1713–35), King of Sardinia (1713–20), Duke of Parma and Piacenza (1735–40).
- Maria Theresa, (1717-1780) Archduchess of Austria, Queen of Hungary and Queen of Bohemia from 1740, Grand Duchess of Tuscany and a Holy Roman Empress by marriage to Francis of Lorraine. Duchess of Parma and Piacenza (1740–48).
Duke of Parma and Piacenza 1735–40
- Marie Louise of Austria (1791- 1847), became upon marriage Empress of the French and in 1817 became Duchess of Parma, Piacenza and Guastalla for her life.