Tuscany

Rulers of Tuscany

House of Medici


Unofficial Rulers of Florence
1434-1531

  • Cosimo di Giovanni de' Medici (1389 – 1464) "Cosimo Pater Patriae", Ruler of Florence from 1434.
  • Piero di Cosimo de' Medici (1416 – 1469) "the Gouty", Ruler of Florence.

The ball in chief was changed by augmentation of honour of Louis XI of France (azure three fleurs-de-lys or) in 1465.

  • Lorenzo de' Medici (1449 – 1492) "the Magnificent", Ruler of Florence.
  • Piero II de' Medici (1472 – 1503) "the Unfortunate", Ruler of Florence until 1494.
  • Cardinal Giovanni de' Medici (1475 – 1521) later Pope Leo X, Ruler of Florence from 1512 to 1513.
  • Giuliano di Lorenzo de' Medici (1479 – 1516) Duke of Nemours, Knight of the Garter, Ruler of Florence from 1513.
  • Lorenzo di Piero de' Medici (1492 – 1519) Ruler of Florence. Duke of Urbino from 1516 to 1519. Knight of the Golden Fleece.
  • Cardinal Giulio di Giuliano de' Medici (1478 – 1534) later Pope Clement VII, Ruler of Florence from 1519 to 1523.
  • Cardinal Ippolito de' Medici (1511 – 1535) Ruler of Florence from 1523 to 1529.
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Early Medici Arms

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The balls in chief was changed by augmentation of honour of Louis XI of France (azure three fleurs-de-lys or) in 1465.

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Giuliano di Lorenzo de' Medici (1479 – 1516) Duke of Nemours

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Lorenzo di Piero de' Medici (1492 – 1519) Ruler of Florence. Duke of Urbino



Dukes of Florence
1531-1569

  • Alessandro de' Medici (1510 – 1537) Duke of Penne and also Duke of Florence from 1532), Ruler of Florence from 1530.
  • Cosimo I de' Medici (1519 – 1569) Duke of Florence from 1537 to 1574, reigning as the first Grand Duke of Tuscany from 1569.
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Alessandro de' Medici ( 1510– 1537)
Duke of Penne and also Duke of Florence


Grand Dukes of Tuscany
1569-1737

  • Cosimo I de' Medici (1519 – 1569) Duke of Florence from 1537 to 1574, reigning as the first Grand Duke of Tuscany from 1569. Knight of the Golden Fleece.

Order of Saint Stephen instituted by Cosimo I in 1561.

  • Francesco I de' Medici (1541 – 1587) Grand Duke of Tuscany. Knight of the Golden Fleece.
  • Ferdinando I de' Medici (1549 – 1609) Grand Duke of Tuscany.
  • Cosimo II de' Medici (1590 – 1621) Grand Duke of Tuscany.
  • Ferdinando II de' Medici (1610 – 1670) Grand Duke of Tuscany.
  • Cosimo III de' Medici (1642 – 1723) Grand Duke of Tuscany.
  • Gian Gastone de' Medici (1671 – 1737) Last Medicean Grand Duke of Tuscany.
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Cosimo I de' Medici (1519-1569),
Duke of Florence from 1537 to 1574, reigning as the first Grand Duke of Tuscany from 1569.

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Medici Grand Duke of Tuscany (1723-1737)

Notable Members of the Medici

  • Pope Leo X (1475 – 1521) born Giovanni de' Medici, Pope from 1513.
  • Pope Clement VII (1478 –1534) born Giulio di Giuliano de' Medici, Pope from 1523.
  • Pope Pius IV (1499 – 1565) born Giovanni Angelo Medici, Pope from 1559.
  • Pope Leo XI (1535 – 1605), born Alessandro Ottaviano de' Medici, Pope in 1605.
  • Pietro de' Medici (1554 – 1604) Prince of Tuscany, younger son of Cosimo I de' Medici. Knight of the Golden Fleece.
  • Catherine de' Medici (1519 – 1589) daughter of Lorenzo II de' Medici, Queen of France as the wife of King Henry II.
  • Marie de' Medici (1575 – 1642) daughter of Francesco I de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany, Queen of France as the wife of King Henry IV of France.
  • Anna Maria Luisa de' Medici (1667 –1743) Electress Palatine, only daughter of Cosimo III de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany, and Marguerite Louise d'Orléans, the last scion of the House of Medici.
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Medici Popes

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Medici Cardinals

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Catherine de' Medici (1519 – 1589)

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Marie de' Medici (1575 – 1642)

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Anna Maria Luisa de' Medici (1667 –1743)



House of Habsburg-Lorraine

Grand Dukes of Tuscany
1737-1801

  • Francis Stephen of Lorraine (1708-1765) Holy Roman Emperor from 1745 and Grand Duke of Tuscany from 1737.
  • Leopold I (1747– 1792) Holy Roman Emperor from 1790 to 1792, King of Hungary, Archduke of Austria and Grand Duke of Tuscany from 1765 to 1790.
  • Ferdinand III (1769–1824) Grand Duke of Tuscany, (1790-1801; 1814-1824),Prince-elector and Duke of Salzburg (1803-1806) and Grand Duke of Würzburg (1806-1814).

Order of Saint Joseph: instituted as Order of Grand Duchy Wurzburg in1807, and transformed into a Tuscan Dynastic Order in 1817.


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Francis Stephen of Lorraine ( 1708-1765)
Holy Roman Emperor from 1745 and Grand Duke of Tuscany from 1737.
Arms as Grand Duke

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Leopold II (1747– 1792)
Holy Roman Emperor from 1790 to 1792, King of Hungary, Archduke of Austria,
and Grand Duke of Tuscany from 1765 to 1790

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Ferdinand III (1769–1824)
Grand Duke of Tuscany (1790-1801; 1814-1824).


House of Bourbon

Kings of Etruria 1801-1807

  • Louis (1773 –1803) King of Etruria from 1801
  • Charles Louis (1799 – 1883) King of Etruria (1803–1807), Duke of Lucca (1824–1847), and Duke of Parma (1847–1849).

see Parma

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 Kings of Etruria



House of Habsburg-Lorraine

Grand Dukes of Tuscany 1814–1860

  • Ferdinand III (1769–1824) Grand Duke of Tuscany, (1790-1801; 1814-1824),Prince-elector and Duke of Salzburg (1803-1806) and Grand Duke of Würzburg (1806-1814).
  • Leopold II (1797 – 1870) Grand Duke of Tuscany.
  • Ferdinand IV (1835 – 1908) Last Grand Duke of Tuscany.

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Ferdinand III, (1769–1824)
Prince-elector and Duke of Salzburg (1803-1806) and Grand Duke of Würzburg (1806-1814).
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Grand Dukes of Tuscany