Medici Tuscany

Rulers of Tuscany

House of Medici

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Early Medici Arms

Unofficial Rulers of Florence
1434-1531

  • Cosimo di Giovanni de' Medici (1389 – 1464) "Cosimo Pater Patriae", Ruler of Florence from 1434.
  • Piero di Cosimo de' Medici (1416 – 1469) "the Gouty", Ruler of Florence.
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The balls in chief was changed by augmentation of honour of Louis XI of France (azure three fleurs-de-lys or) in 1465.

  • Lorenzo de' Medici (1449 – 1492) "the Magnificent", Ruler of Florence.
  • Piero II de' Medici (1472 – 1503) "the Unfortunate", Ruler of Florence until 1494.
  • Cardinal Giovanni de' Medici (1475 – 1521) later Pope Leo X, Ruler of Florence from 1512 to 1513.

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Giuliano di Lorenzo de' Medici, Duke of Nemours KG (1479 – 1516)

  • Giuliano di Lorenzo de' Medici (1479 – 1516) Duke of Nemours, Knight of the Garter, Ruler of Florence from 1513.

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Lorenzo di Piero de' Medici, Duke of Urbino (1492 – 1519) Ruler of Florence.

  • Lorenzo di Piero de' Medici (1492 – 1519) Ruler of Florence. Duke of Urbino from 1516 to 1519. Knight of the Golden Fleece.
  • Cardinal Giulio di Giuliano de' Medici (1478 – 1534) later Pope Clement VII, Ruler of Florence from 1519 to 1523.
  • Cardinal Ippolito de' Medici (1511 – 1535) Ruler of Florence from 1523 to 1529.


Dukes of Florence

1531-1569

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  • Alessandro de' Medici (1510 – 1537) Duke of Penne and also Duke of Florence from 1532), Ruler of Florence from 1530. Married Margaret of Austria (1522 – 1586) natural daughter of Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor.
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  • Cosimo I de' Medici (1519 – 1569) Duke of Florence from 1537 to 1574, reigning as the first Grand Duke of Tuscany from 1569.

 

 

Grand Dukes of Tuscany
1569-1737

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Medici Grand Duke of Tuscany (1723-1737)

  • Cosimo I de' Medici (1519 – 1574) Duke of Florence from 1537 to 1574, reigning as the first Grand Duke of Tuscany from 1569. Knight of the Golden Fleece. Married Eleanor of Toledo (1522 – 1562) daughter of Don Pedro Álvarez de Toledo, Marquis of Villafranca.

1st Grand Master of the Order of St. Stephen
Order of Saint Stephen instituted by Cosimo I in 1561.

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  • Francesco I de' Medici (1541 – 1587) Grand Duke of Tuscany. Knight of the Golden Fleece. Married Joanna of Austria (1547 – 1578) daughter of Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor
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  • Ferdinando I de' Medici (1549 – 1609) Grand Duke of Tuscany. Married Christina of Lorraine (1565 – 1637) daughter of Charles III (1543 –1608), Duke of Lorraine.
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  • Cosimo II de' Medici (1590 – 1621) Grand Duke of Tuscany. Married Maria Maddalena of Austria (1589 –1631) daughter of Charles II, Archduke of Inner Austria and Duke of Styria.
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  • Ferdinando II de' Medici (1610 – 1670) Grand Duke of Tuscany. Married Vittoria della Rovere (1622 –1694) daughter of Federico Ubaldo della Rovere, son of Francesco Maria, Duke of Urbino.
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  • Cosimo III de' Medici (1642 – 1723) Grand Duke of Tuscany. Married Marguerite Louise d'Orléans (1645 – 1721) daughter of Gaston of France, Duke of Orléans.
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  • Gian Gastone de' Medici (1671 – 1737) Last Medicean Grand Duke of Tuscany. Married Anna Maria Franziska of Saxe-Lauenburg (1672 – 1741) daughter of Julius Francis, Duke of Saxe-Lauenburg.

Cadet Branches of the Medici

Princes of Ottajano (Naples, Extant)

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Descended from Ottaviano de' Medici, the Gonfaloniere di Giustizia and father of Pope Leo XI and his wife Francesca Salviati.

The extinction of the main Medici dynasty in 1737 meant the Princes of Ottajano, an extant branch of the House of Medici were eligible to inherit the Grand Duchy of Tuscany and could have carried on as Medici sovereigns but for the intervention of Europe's major powers, which allocated the sovereignty of Florence to Francis Stephen of Lorraine (1708-1765) Holy Roman Emperor from 1745 and Grand Duke of Tuscany from 1737.

 

Notable Members of the Medici

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Medici Popes

  • Pope Leo X (1475 – 1521) born Giovanni de' Medici, Pope from 1513.
  • Pope Clement VII (1478 –1534) born Giulio di Giuliano de' Medici, Pope from 1523.
  • Pope Pius IV (1499 – 1565) born Giovanni Angelo Medici, Pope from 1559.
  • Pope Leo XI (1535 – 1605), born Alessandro Ottaviano de' Medici, Pope in 1605.

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Medici Cardinals

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Pietro de' Medici (1554 – 1604) Prince of Tuscany

  • Pietro de' Medici (1554 – 1604) Prince of Tuscany, younger son of Cosimo I de' Medici. Knight of the Golden Fleece.

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Catherine de' Medici (1519 – 1589)

  • Catherine de' Medici (1519 – 1589) daughter of Lorenzo II de' Medici, Queen of France as the wife of King Henry II.

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Marie de' Medici (1575 – 1642)

  • Marie de' Medici (1575 – 1642) daughter of Francesco I de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany, Queen of France as the wife of King Henry IV of France.

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Anna Maria Luisa de' Medici (1667 –1743)

  • Anna Maria Luisa de' Medici (1667 –1743) Electress Palatine, only daughter of Cosimo III de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany, and Marguerite Louise d'Orléans, the last scion of the House of Medici.